Indonesia

…lusuhnya kain bendera di halaman rumah kita, bukan satu alasan untuk kita tinggalkan…”
Iwan Fals

Picture1Indonesia, the largest archipelago country in the world, comprises more than 17,000 islands which stretch almost 5,000 km in strategic location astride major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean and divided into three time zones. There are about 300 ethnic groups, speaking 365 languages and dialects inhabit the islands.

Richly endowed with natural resources and hosting a phenomenal array of distinct cultures, the islands have been a magnet to traders and European colonisers. Portuguese was the first came to Indonesia in 15th century before displaced by Dutch which took control for more than 350 years until Indonesia declared its independence in 1945.

There is a multicultural concept of strength in difference that has been adopted by Indonesian for so long. It is reflected in the motto “Unity In Diversity”.

Brief History of Indonesia

  1. Prehistory
    • Java Man or Homo erectus was inhabited in Indonesian archipelago (two million to 500,000 years ago)
    • Austronesian people, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan, and arrived in Indonesia. They spread through the archipelago, confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions (around 2000 BCE)
    • Mastering of wet-field rice cultivation (8th century BCE)
    • Allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish (1st century CE)
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  2. Early kingdoms
    • Tarumanagara (358-669)
    • Srivijaya (7th to 13th centuries)
    • Sailendra (8th to 9th centuries) –> Built the Borobudur Temple
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    • Sunda Kingdom (669-1579)
    • Medang Kingdom (752–1045) –> Built the Prambanan Temple
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    • Kediri (1045–1221)
    • Singhasari (1222–1292)
    • Majapahit (1293–1500)
  3. The rise of Muslim states
    • The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
    • Sultanate of Ternate (1257–present)
    • Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
    • Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548)
    • Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
    • Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
    • Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s)
  4. European colonialism
    • The Portuguese (1512–1850)
    • Dutch East India Co. (VOC) (1602–1800)
    • Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
  5. The emergence of Indonesia
    • National awakening (1899–1942)
    • Japanese occupation (1942–1945)
    • National revolution (1945–1950)
  6. Independent Indonesia
    • Liberal democracy (1950–1957)
    • Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
    • Start of the New Order (1965–1966)
    • The New Order (1966–1998)
    • Reformasi era (1998–present)

Facts of Indonesia

  1. Independence: Declared 17 August 1945
  2. 4th most populous nation in the world. The population of Indonesia was estimated 216,108,345 in July 1999.
  3. The official language is Bahasa Indonesia also Indonesia has 500 ethnic/regional languages and dialects.
  4. The currency is Indonesian Rupiah / IDR (Rp).
  5. Indonesian lies in the equator line. So, Indonesia has a nice and warm climate. Temperature +/- 80F, or about 25–30C constant day & night length. Indonesia has 2 seasons: dry (April – October), rainy (November – March).
  6. Area: 1,919,440 sq km.
  7. GDP: $ 1027 billion.
  8. Religions: Islam ,Christian, Catholic, Hindu, Buddha, Konghucu.
  9. Topography: Low lands & high lands, 128 active volcanoes. Lands mostly consist of rich tropical rainforest and fertility of soil enriched by volcanic eruptions.
  10. The greatest diversity of coral reef fish in the world are found in Indonesia, with more than 1650 species in eastern Indonesia alone.
  11. Natural Resources:
    • Cocoa
    • Crude Palm Oil
    • Energy (LNG)
    • No. 2 world’s largest producer of Tin
    • No. 4 world’s largest producer of Copper
    • No. 5 world’s largest producer of Nickel
    • No. 7 world’s largest producer of Gold
    • No. 8 world’s largest producer of Coal and the most prominent steam coal exporter

Flora and Fauna

Flora:

Indonesia also in the top five on plant diversity with an estimated 38,000 higher plant species; heads the world list in palm diversity with 477 species, 225 of them endemic; and has over half of the 350 species of dipterocarp trees, with 155 being endemic in Kalimantan.

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Fauna:

  1.  515 species of mammals, 39 percent of them endemic
  2. 511 species of reptiles, 150 of them endemic
  3. 1,531 species of birds, 397 of them endemic
  4. 270 amphibian species, 100 of them endemic
  5. 75 species of psittacine birds, 38 of them endemic;
  6. 35 species of primates

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Culture of Indonesia

    1. Food
      • Each area in Indonesia has its own traditional food and custom.Picture2
      • We mostly eat Rice together with some other compliment such as beef, vegetables, chicken, seafood etc. Some region eat sagoo, and corn.
      • Spices (notably chili), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.Picture1
      • Most of our food are spicy and hot
      • Since the majority of Indonesia people  are muslim so the food avible in indonesia following these two terms Halal and Haraam. Halal (legal food in Islam), conforming to Islamic food laws and Haraam (an Arabic term meaning“ forbidden” ), the opposite of halal, includes pork,dogs,reptiles and alcoholic drinks.
    2. Clothes
      • Batik clothes is acknowledge by UNESCO as a world heritage. We have different craft in every island
        Picture3Picture4
    3. Traditional sports and games
      • Pencak silat: Pencak silat was chosen as a unifying term for the Indonesian fighting styles. Pencak is the performance aspects of the martial art, while silat is the essence of the fighting and self-defense.
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      • Sepak Takraw: The ball made from rattan. The play the ball by kicking the ball passing over the net.
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      •  Stone Jumping in Nias: This is another traditional sports in North Sumatra, called Stone Jumping, as you can see in the picture. The purpose of the sports is to jump high above the pile of the stone. You are not allowed to go to battlefield if you cannot jump this stone, and its consider to see someone mature or not.
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      • Karapan Sapi (Bulls race) in Madura: The bulls race from Madura Island, it is unique and special event for Madura people
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      • Balap Karung (Sack Race): Sack race is one of the most popular traditional race on the day Indonesia’s independence. A number of participants required to enter the lower part of her/his body into a sack and a race to the finish line.
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      • Congklak: What you need: congklak board and 98 small shells, seeds or stones (for a board that has 7 holes on each side)Object of the Game: to get as many shells as you can into your store house. Your store house is the hole at the end of the board on your left side.To Win: You win the game if you have the most shells in your store house (menang biji) – or – if you are the last person to run out of shells on your side of the board (menang jalan).
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      • Engrang: Engrang games is someone step on bamboo, or on Coconut shell. their foot is bounded with nail slope rope. The unique of engrang, someone must walking as balance to avoid drop to ground. In this engrang parade, Egrang Player play music. yes.. its musical drum band.
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      • Patil Lele: to play this game you must make two groups, then punch holes in the ground as a timber blow being played. Winners of the game is capable of hitting sticks as far as possible. The distance is calculated using the parent timber with the score is 10. The scores of the group can be more higher if the players use the pathil lele style. That is the position of the child hitting the wood with his hands behind. If not caught opposite, the scores of the distance will be calculated by one main line of wood will turn into 100. This game is called pathil lele by citizens. The reason is, because if the wood-stick hurt our arm, the pain hit by slashes like catfish fin. In addition, the style of this unique game hitting like catfish movement. Attack and defend themselves
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      • Engkle: This game is child’s play performed by using a special image in the media area of land with kereweng plate. A fraction Kereweng isthmus formed round about 5 cm in diameter. Engkle usually played by girls, but sometimes there are also boys who participated. The image formed on the ground usually with a square-shaped (called home) with the formation of 6 parts. Or there is that uses 8 plus mountain formation (half-circle picture) at the end. Engkle called, because this game each player does not have to do engkle or tiptoe (hopscotch) with one leg to go through every part of the house. Players may only be lower both legs at a house he owned, or the picture area of the mountain. The game begins with one player throwing a abak house kereweng to an agreed area. Then the player must engkle to encourage abak use fingertips to each stage of the home box, and so on.
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      • Bedhil Lodong (Lodong Rifle): Lodong rifle is a traditional cannon is usually made of bamboo with a length of about one or 1.5 meters. The inside dibobok until hollow. What remains is just a barrier at one end. At the top, made a small hole that serves to ignite the fire rifle.The gun muzzle is placed slightly upwards. Enter a little water into the bamboo, followed by a piece of carbide. Flammable hole closed. A few moments later, after a broken carbide hole is opened and the fire brought near North Sulawesi. So, will you hear a ‘Duaaarrr! ”
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    4. Traditional weapon
      • The kris or keris is an asymmetrical dagger indigenous to Indonesia, In 2005, UNESCO gave the title Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity to the kris of Indonesia. In return, UNESCO urged Indonesia to preserve their heritage
      • The kujang is a weapon created by the Sundanese people of West Java, Indonesia
      • Karambit A blade shaped like a tiger’s claw that women could tie in their hair
      • Clurit is sickle or a small scythe used for reaping crops and also employed as a weapon
      • Parang = big knife
      • Cabang = Trisula
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    5. Traditional music
      • Angklung is a musical instrument made out of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The tubes are carved so that they have a resonant pitch when it shakes.
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      • Gamelan is a musical ensemble from Indonesia, typically from the islands of Bali or Java.
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      • Rebab is a two-stringed fiddle.  This instrument are found in many Muslim countries.  So, it is generally being considered as an foreign instruments in Indonesian gamelan
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      • Kacapi is a zither-like Sundanese musical instrument played as the main accompanying instrument in the Tembang Sunda
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      • Calung is a bamboo tube xylophone used in the Sundanese music of West Java. Usually is played by three or more men (women is seldom to play it)
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      • Kendang is a two-headed drum Good kendang are said to be made from the wood of jackfruit, coconuts or cempedak. Buffalo hide is often used for the bam (inferior surface which emits low-pitch beats) while goatskin is used for the chang (superior surface which emits high-pitch beats).
        The skin is stretched on y-shaped leather or rattan strings, which can be tightened to change the pitch of the heads. The thinner the leather the sharper the sound.
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      • Sasando is a stringed musical instrument or cordophone type musical instrument. It comes from the island of Rote, East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia.
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      • Talempong a small kettle gong which gives its name to an ensemble of four or five talempong as well as other gongs and drums.
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      • Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental form of music composed on a row of small, horizontally-laid gongs that function melodically.
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    6. Traditional Houses
      • These are some of our traditional. If you came to Indonesia and you wanna see all of these, you don’t have to visit all of our provinces, you can simply visit our Indonesian Miniature Theme Park (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah)
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    7. Traditional Dance and Entertainment
      • Wayang Golek, wooden 3D puppets, the most popuar traditional entertainment in Indonesia especially java and it’s acknowledge as UNESCO world heritage
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      • Traditional Dance (Bali, Java, and Reog)
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    8. Traditional Transportation
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    9. Traditional Market
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    10. Life in Villages are still traditional compared to modern life in Jakarta and other big cities in Indonesia.
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Life in Cities

We have many skyscraper building and mall in many big cities in Indonesia. Metropolitan tourism activities are shopping, sightseeing in big cities, and enjoying modern amusement parks. The nation’s capital, Jakarta, offers many places for shopping

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(YS&HP)

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